15 out. Breve História da Neurociência Cognitiva INTRODUÇÃO HISTÓRIA DO HISTÓRIA DA PSICOLOGIA Empirismo: conhecimento através de. age (estimated from 9 to 11 yrs) the right hemisphere would take Ongudge function, for the cerebral hemispheres were equipotencial in the young child. Free Online Library: Las funciones psiquicas superiores, la corteza cerebral y la como la idea de la homogeneidad y la equipotencialidad del tejido cerebral.
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Equipotentiality refers to a psychological theory in both neuropsychology and equipotenciqlidad. Karl Spencer Lashley defined equipotentiality as “The apparent capacity of any intact part of a functional brain to carry out… the [memory] functions which are lost by the destruction of [other parts]”.
The law of mass action says that the efficiency of any complex function of the brain is reduced proportionately to how much damage the brain as a whole has sustained, but not to the damage of any particular area of the brain.
In this context when we use brain we are referring to the cortex. In the s brain localization theories were the popular theories on how the brain functioned.
Lashley argued that one would then be able to locate these connections in part of the brain and he systematically looked for where learning was localized. While working on his PhD in genetics, Lashley began a number of tests on brain tissue and the idea of localization.
A fellow researcher, Shepherd Ivory Franzalso shared the common interest of studying localization and studying only things that could be observed. Franz had equipotenicalidad done previous work with lesions in cat brains and puzzle boxes so Lashley and Franz decided to team up and work with rats.
In their first experiments, Lashley was in charge of building different mazes for equipotencialidar rats to go through and Franz was in charge of making the lesions in the rats’ brains. Franz made multiple squipotencialidad in specific parts of the brains and after they healed, put them through the maze to see if they had deficits in finding the food.
What they found was that the mice had no deficits finding the food if the equipotencialldad were in a specific equipotencialjdad of the brain but if the lesions damaged a large portion of the brain, they did have troubles finding food. This would suggest that just one part of the brain is not responsible for memory and localization was totally ruled out.
They also found that rats with lesions in a small specific area had functioning sensory systems and it seemed that when parts of the brain were damaged for a certain action, other parts of the brain were compensating so those actions could be carried out. Lashley coined the term equipotentiality to define the idea that if one part of the brain is damaged, other parts of the brain will carry out the memory functions for that damaged part.
Ghiselli and Brown did an experiment where they destroyed various subcortical regions of the brain in rats and tested their abilities to learn mazes compared to rats with no damage done to their brains. The rats with damaged brains didn’t learn as well as the control rats, but no particular region seemed to be necessary to learn the mazes. There has also been experimental work done on higher apes and also studies cerberal on humans who have suffered brain damage in various ways.
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The data gathered from these tend to confirm Lashley’s theories. Using the idea of equipotentiality we can explain how someone who’s received damage to a specific part of their brain can relearn equipotencialiddad to perform actions that were lost equipotencilaidad to brain damage.
Since the area of the brain that was originally performing this function is damaged and unusable, the brain compensates and can code that information in other parts of the brain.
Through Lashley’s ideas of equipotentiality and the law of mass action, he is saying that the brain is functioning as a whole unit and that over all damage to the brain effects it’s over all functioning. This starts to go against localization theories which would say that the brain eqiupotencialidad only functioning in specific regions and the equipktencialidad ability to perform at any given task is only effected by equipotenccialidad overall damage to that area of the brain and damage to an unrelated equipogencialidad shouldn’t affect the task.
However, equipotentiality and the law of mass action don’t mean that there is no localization. In neuropsychologyequipotentiality is a neurological principle that describes a cortical mechanism, first identified by Jean Pierre Flourens and later revisited by Karl Lashley in the s.
The principle of equipotentiality is the idea that the rate of learning is independent of the combination of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli that are used in classical conditioning. After performing ablation experiments on birds, and seeing that they could still fly, peck, mate, sleep, and perform a range of other regular behaviors, Flourens concluded that every area of the brain was capable of doing what every other area of the brain could, but creebral for higher-level functions which he called “perception”.
He also argued that elementary sensory input was localized, which is supported by current research. Lashley offered two generalizations from his research, that recently have been successfully challenged but nonetheless represent important milestones in the development of neurological theory:.
In behaviorismthe theory of equipotentiality suggests that any two stimuli can be associated in the brain, regardless of their nature. It proposes that all forms of associative learningboth classical Pavlovian and operant Skinnerian involve the same underlying mechanisms.
However, food avoidance experiments have questioned its application. Lashley contributed to psychology and neuropsychology in a number of ways. First, his cerebfal, Brain Mechanisms and Intelligence: A Quantitative Study of Injuries to the Brain disproved the idea of localization and brought to life the idea that the brain and its multiple parts work together for cerebarl and other functions.
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They also began studying deficits people may have along with parts of their brain that may be damaged to see if there is a correlation between them. Lashley was also a pioneer in challenging the way we think about human and animal behavior in terms of our biology. An input of information or stimuli occurs and connections occur in the brain which leads to the output or behavior. Researchers also expanded the study of working memory, central executive, and further research on memory deficits and learning.
Lashley did not find a central place for stored memories, which suggests that stored memories are not localized but stored and retrieved in multiple areas.
Karl Lashley worked with Donald Hebb in The Yerkes Laboratories; a lab that worked with monkeys to study various psychological concepts. Another man that Lashley influenced was Roger Equipotencialidda. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The first century of experimental psychology.
Lawrence Erlbaum associates, Inc. Retrieved November 21, from http: An introduction to the history of psychology. Retrieved cerebra ” https: All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from July Articles with unsourced statements from October Views Read Edit View history.