Madrid: Alianza. (). 8. Arias, F.: “El Proyecto de Investigación. Introducción a la metodología científica”. 5ta. Fidias G. Arias Odón. (). 9. FIDIAS, Arias. (). El Proyecto de Investigación: Introducción a la Metodología Científica. (5ª e.d.). Caracas, Venezuela: EPISTEME. El Proyecto De Investigacion [Fidias Arias] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
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Fidias G. Arias (Author of El Proyecto de Investigación – Introducción a la metodología científica)
Series VPL Biennale nr. And this is no different in the present learning society. The prevailing systems of professional training and education do require adjustment and even innovation, because they are part of the changing socio-economic and socio-cultural landscape. Where once upon a time, simply completing a qualification was enough to gain and hold onto your place in society and in the labour market, in ever more cases this no longer holds. Nowadays, in the on-going transition to the learning society flexible, continuous and more adaptive learning is required to keep the citizen viable i toda s la ou a ket or in investigqcion words, productive citizenship.
Staying on top of this development is vital for all actors: These ties have always been present, but never before in history has the individual — or the citizen — got the ha e to gai so u h o t ol i stee i g o e s a ee th ough learning as is the case in the learning society.
It is the systematic process of Validatio of P io Lea i g VPL that offe s this i do of oppo tu ities ith its focus on opening up learning opportunities on — metaphorically speaking – o fl. And since learning is ever more connected to social success, this focus on individualised control by means of VPL is the main feature of the changing learning paradigm in the present context; a paradigm that is centred around individual choices and competence-based and outcomes-directed lifelong learning Duvekot, VPL is more and more embedded in the primary processes of learning and working.
VPL will be a inveetigacion and ‘guide’ for sustainable personal development, in both processes.
Moreover, it will be aiming at creating shared ownership by citizens and organisations of their competency-based development. It s time for practising VPL.
The crucial question to be answered in this respect is how to further implement VPL as an effective method in lifelong learning perspectives, being able to integrate all citizens effectively and quality-assured into lifelong learning strategies at all levels and in all environments and contexts? This question relates to priority areas in the practice of sectors, regions, organisations and citizens, related to enhancing lifelong learning perspectives and to fostering social and economic progress by: Integrating VPL in all learning levels and environments.
Offering concrete and real learning opportunities to all citizens, with a special focus on underrepresented groups and non-traditional learners.
Strengthening the levels of professionalism in VPL-functions to be able to cope with learner-driven and learning outcome-based lifelong learning. The aim was strengthening the platform for policy makers, practitioners, users, researchers and other stakeholders that are involved in further developing and implementing VPL-systematics and -processes. The 2nd VPL Biennale focused on sharing information, knowledge, ideas and visions on VPL and a out the eati e p o ess of lea i g f o ea h othe s su esses, proble s a d solutio s i the VPL- o ld.
Finally, as a kind of disclaimer the reader should be aware that the English in this publication might have been formulated in UK- or American-English, depending on the origin or orientation of the author s.
The Biennale Committee The Spanish Experience Validating informal and non-formal learning outcomes with a focus on labour market perspectives Yazid Isli 9. Nowadays, flexible, continuous and more adaptive learning is required to keep people ia le o toda s la ou a ket. These actors are all tied together closely in the modern learning society.
These ties have always been present, but never in history the learner got the chance to gain so much o t ol i stee i g o e s a ee th ough lea i g as is the ase i the learning society.
And it s the process of Validation of Prior Learning VPL that offers a very big i do of oppo tu ities ith its fo us o ope i g up lea i g oppo tu ities fo all, ega dless of o e s so ial status a d og iti e le el.
A d si e learning is ever more connected to social success, this means that VPL can assist all target groups in focusing on their strengths within the context of the learning society. VPL recognizes and values what people have learned so far in their lives. The VPL-process aims at linking these learning experiences to further development steps for everyone in their given context.
El Proyecto de Investigación – Introducción a la metodología científica
In this perspective, VPL is not designed to highlight the lack of competences but precisely the opposite — to take stock of existing competences; in othe o ds, athe tha ei g half e ptVPL takes the ie that so eo e s glass is al ead half filled.
Recognizing and placing value on competences is known as passive or summative VPL. On top of this, a third form is the reflective form of VPL in which the individual goes through a process of self-valuation: Reflective VPL, takes the whole learning biography of an individual as the focus for building up a portfolio and action plan. Only after this is done, the individual makes a choice: It refers to the notion of autonomy of the individual. The essential difference between these approaches is that in a summative and fo ati e VPL p o ess the fo us is o alidati g so eo e s de elop e t agai st a pre-set sta da d.
E ide e fo su h a alidatio is olle ted i the fo of a s apshot of so eo e s p ese t status uo th ough so eo e s diplo as, certificates, professional products, etc. The outcome of the VPL-process is official recognition for learning accomplishments within a qualification or certificate. The formative process goes a step further than summative VPL.
The reflective process is quite different from the other two forms. It is geared at enabling individuals to manage their own careers, articulate their own development needs and build up their own competences. Education and vocational training should respond to this, becoming more flexible and demand-driven.
Formal systems such as qualification structures and vocational education will then have less of a prescriptive function in terms of personal development, and serve more as a reference framework and repertoire within which there is individual choice.
These formal systems retain a function as pegs for defining the direction and level of personal development and the relevant external communication with employers, mediators, referrers, schools, etc. Validation of Prior Learning is as much a principle as a process, giving true evidence of the transition from the present knowledge society towards the learning society. The main changes of this transition towards more personalised learning can be reflected on various impact levels: Educationally, aiming at qualification, updating, upgrading or portfolio- enrichment by means of creating output-oriented standards focusing on learning outcomes and learning made to measure, d.
On the macro-level, authorities and social partners are responsible for organising the match between these levels by means of legislation, regulations, labour agreements, fiscal policy, training funds, etc. Crucial in practising VPL is acknowledging the self- a agi g ole of the e po e ed learning individual in making lifelong learning a reality!
To imp o e lea e s oppo tu ities i life, fo al s ste s i the lea i g arena and the social systems must be expressed in terms of competences and learning outcomes.
These competences investihacion outcomes must in turn be linked to a clear articulation of learning opportunities. The learning system must be receptive, transparent, flexible and demand-led to be peoyecto to provide personalised learning approaches.
This promotes the peoyecto of the many opportunities for learning. Validating prior learning experiences inevitably leads to an adjustment of the existing qualifications and human resources management systems. It a help i a ious o te ts a d ith diffe e t objectives. It s just a atte of t ul putti g the lea e i the e t e of lea i g processes, not just in terms of written statements but rather in truly affording lea e s age.
The learner at the centre! This sixth volume of the Series VPL Biennale provides more insight in the diverse ways that learners have at their disposal when it comes to making use of their personal learning experiences. Learners are owner of their learning history and are more and more allowed to capitalise on the personal richness that this history holds.
That s hat Validatio of P io Lea i g is a out: Assisting in the articulation of the need for competences and skills on the labour market, in social systems, human resources management and civil services. Linki g a lea e s alue to a pe so alised lea i g st ateg that fits i ell ith the demand for competences and skills in society.
Stimulating and affording an active role of the learner in lifelong strategies. Enriching articles were written for and presented at this Biennale, demonstrating the international diversity in utilisation of Validation of Prior Learning-s ste ati s.
The first contribution in this volume by Madhu Singh conveys on the issue of organizing the Recognition, Validation and Recognition RVA systems in the international debate. Existing empirical findings show that organizing RVA at the national, regional and especially local level is a real challenge for all those involved. The outcome of this global enquiry is 1 a framework for organizing RVA at the macro, meso and micro levels and identifying possible problems or obstacles and 2 listing the initial indicators for organizing RVA at the local level, putting the end-users at the centre of the validation process and considering the acceptance and ownership of learners and local groups.
Validation of non-formal and informal learning, or the efforts to make visible and value the learning taking place outside formal education, is gradually becoming an integrated part of national education and training and lifelong learning systems in Europe. While most countries now officially state that they aim for the introduction of national validation systems, this is not always translated into practical arrangements on the ground giving citizens access to validation.
Policy efforts to introduce validation as a systematic part of national qualifications and skills formation systems now date back more than three decades. The authors want to contribute to a better understanding of the history of this policy field and illustrate how national and European level policy initiatives interact over time. James Rickabaugh addresses the need for personalising learning. He states that the greatest gift to learners is to give them the tools, insights, and understanding necessary to be in charge of their own learning and lives.
When learners understand how to channel their interest and curiosity, they gain the ability to motivate themselves. When learners act on their interests and motivation, they begin to understand the power they possess to support their learning. When learners understand the relationship between effort, strategy, persistence and use of resources to meet learning challenges, they gain the power to control what they learn.
And when learners begin to own their learning, they gain a prized possession to protect, build, and maintain for a lifetime. The main question addressed in this contribution is why and how validation of p io suppo ts this otio of the Lea i g I depe de e Co ti uu.
Ruud Duvekot further explores the argumentation of James Rickabaugh by integrating the concepts of VPL and personalised learning. Civil effect means achieving a learning outcome in the context of a particular qualification standard within the education system. Social effect is focused on results which are relevant to job profiles, targets, participation goals, or assignments.
Personal impact may mean achieving empowerment, career and study orientation or personal development. Therewith, VPL can be regarded as a precondition for truly activating personalised learning processes in which the learner has a — or even the – voice. As a result, added value of integrating both phenomena or concepts arises when linking the lea e s auto o ith the roles of the other actors in learning processes. Validation of prior learning VPL has been at the Nordic agenda for the past 15—20 years, and validation is well established in the Nordic countries.
In this contribution, they present a study of quality work in validation based on the Nordic quality model. The study of quality work employs an interactive approach, which is described briefly. Preliminary results from the on-going processes in three cases from Denmark, Finland, and Sweden are also presented.
Finally, some conclusions from the study this far are drawn. They sketch the way forward from the already-growing islands of good practice, to a fully operational national RPL system which includes a vision and a five- year implementation plan. The contribution closes with a reflection on the development of RPL in the South African context and its implications for access and redress, learning pathways, and lifelong learning. Per Andersson discusses the process of validation as being on the one hand a separate activity, and on the other hand an intertwined part of a process of validation and new learning.
He explains this by considering prior learning as the object of validation and participation in validation as a learning process. To unlock the debate, he identifies three dimensions of this learning process: