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This a division of application Ser. This invention relates to adapck soluble dispersant additives useful in fuel and lubricating oil compositions including concentrates containing said additives, and methods for their manufacture and use.

Multigrade lubricating oils typically are identified by two numbers such as lOW30, 5W30 etc.

The first number in the multigrade designation is associated with a maximum low temperature e. Thus, each particular multigrade oil must simultaneously meet both strict low gne high temperature viscosity requirements in order to qualify for a given multigrade oil designation.

Such requirements are set e. The minimum high temperature viscosity requirement, e. The maximum low temperature viscosity requirement is intended to facilitate engine starting in cold weather and to ensure pumpability, i. In formulating an oil which efficiently meets both low and high temperature viscosity requirements, the formulator may use a single oil of desired viscosity or a blend of two lubricating oils of different viscosities, in conjunction with manipulating the identity and amount of additives that must be present to achieve the overall target properties of a particular multigrade oil including its viscosity requirements.

The natural adpadk characteristic of a lubricating oil is typically expressed by the neutral number of the oil e. SN with a adpac, neutral number being associated with a higher natural viscosity adpavk a given temperature. In some instances the formulator will find it desirable adpackk blend oils of two different neutral numbers, and hence viscosities, to achieve an oil having a viscosity intermediate between the viscosity of the components of the oil blend.

Thus, the neutral number designation provides the formulator with a simple way to achieve a desired base oil of predictable viscosity. Unfortunately, merely blending oils of different viscosity characteristics does not enable the formulator to meet the low and high temperature viscosity requirements adack multigrade oils. The formulator’s primary tool for achieving this goal is an additive conventionally referred to as a viscosity index improver i.

The large size of these polymers enables them to significantly increase kinematic viscosities of base oils even at low concentrations. Howeverbecause solutions of high polymers are non-Newtonian they tend to give lower viscosities adpak expected in a high shear environment due to the alignment of the polymer. CCS viscosity of the base oil to a lesser extent than they do the high temperature low shear viscosities.

The aforesaid viscosity requirements for a multigrade oil can therefore be viewed as being increasingly antagonistic at increasingly higher levels of V. For example, if a large quantity of V. In another example, the formulator may be able to readily meet the requirement for a lOW30 oil but not a 5W30 oil, with bie particular ad-pack additive package and base oil.

Under these circumstances the formulator may attempt to lower the viscosity of the base oil, such as by increasing the proportion of low viscosity oil in a blend, to compensate for the low temperature viscosity increase induced by the V.

However, increasing the proportion of low viscosity oils in a blend can in turn lead to a new set of limitations on the formulator, as lower viscosity base oils are considerably less desirable in diesel engine use than the heavier, more viscous oils.

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Further complicating the formulator’s task is the effect that dispersant additives can have on the viscosity characteristics of multigrade oils. Dispersants are frequently present in quality oils such as multigrade oils, together with the V. The primary function of ben dispersant is to maintain oil insolubles, resulting from oxidation during use, in suspension in the oil thus preventing sludge flocculation and precipitation.

Consequently, the amount of dispersant employed is dictated and controlled by the effectiveness of the material for achieving its dispersant function. A high quality lOW30 commercial oil might contain from two to four times as much dispersant as V.

In addition to dispersancy, conventional dispersants can also increase the low and high temperature viscosity characteristics of a base oil simply by virtue of their polymeric nature.

Gis contrast to the V. Consequently, the adpadk is much less shear sensitive, thereby contributing more to the low temperature CCS viscosity relative to its contribution to the high temperature viscosity of the base oil than a V.

Moreover, gej smaller dispersant molecule contributes much less to the high temperature viscosity of ge base oil than the V. Thus, the magnitude of the low temperature viscosity increase induced by the dispersant can exceed the low temperature viscosity increase induced by the V.


Consequently, as the dispersant induced low temperature viscosity increase causes the low temperature viscosity of the oil to approach the maximum low temperature viscosity limit, the more difficult it is to introduce a sufficient amount of V.

The formulator is thereby once again forced to shift to the undesirable expedient of using higher proportions of gem viscosity oil to permit addition of the requisite amount of V. In accordance with the present invention, dispersants yen provided which have been found to possess inherent characteristics such that they contribute considerably less to low temperature viscosity increases than dispersants of the prior art while achieving similar high temperature viscosity increases.

Moreover, as the concentration of dispersant in the base oil is increased, this beneficial low temperature viscosity effect becomes biw more pronounced relative to conventional dispersants.

This advantage is especially significant for high quality heavy duty diesel oils which typically require high concentrations of dispersant additive. Furthermore, these improved viscosity properties facilitate the use of V. More significantly, these viscometric properties also permit the use of higher viscosity base stocks with attendant advantages in engine performance. Furthermore, the utilization of the dispersant additives of the instant invention allows adlack reduction in the amount of V.

The materials of this invention are thus an improvement over conventional dispersants because of their effectiveness as dispersants coupled with enhanced low temperature viscometric properties. These materials are particularly useful with V.

In accordance with the present invention there are provided oil soluble dispersant compositions. These dispersants exhibit a high temperature to low temperature viscosity balance or ratio which is more favorable than that of conventional dispersant materials. That is to say, the instant dispersant materials possess inherent characteristics such that they contribute less to low temperature viscosity increase than dispersants of the prior art while increasing the contribution to the high temperature viscosity increase.

They also exhibit enhanced or improved dispersancy characteristics.

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In accordance with one embodiment of the present invention, the improved dispersants are comprised of the oil soluble reaction products of:. A nitrogen or ester containing adducts selected yen the group consisting of A-1 oil soluble aepack, amides, imides, oxazolines and esters, or mixtures thereof, of long chain hydrocarbon substituted mono- and dicarboxylic acids gwn their anhydrides or esters; A-2 long chain aliphatic hydrocarbon having a polyamine attached directly thereto; A-3 Mannich condensation products formed by condensing a long chain hydrocarbon substituted phenol with an aldehyde and a polyamine; and A-4 Mannich condensation products formed by reacting long chain hydrocarbon substituted mono- and dicarboxylic acids or their anhydrides or esters with an aminophenol, which may be optionally hydrocarbyl substituted, to form a long chain hydrocarbon substituted amide or imide-containing phenol intermediate adduct, and condensing about a molar proportion of the long chain hydrocarbon substituted amide- or imide-containing phenol intermediate adduct with about 1 to 2.

The long bos hydrocarbyl polymer-substituted mono- or dicarboxylic acid material, i. Upon reaction with the polymer, the monounsaturation of the monounsaturated carboxylic reactant becomes saturated. Thus, for example, maleic anhydride becomes a polymer substituted succinic anhydride, and acrylic acid becomes a polymer substituted propionic acid.

Typically, from about 0.

Normally, not all of the polymer reacts with the monounsaturated carboxylic reactant and the reaction mixture will contain non-acid substituted polymer. The polymer-substituted mono- or dicarboxylic acid material also referred to herein as “functionalized” polymer or polyolefinnon-acid substituted polyolefin, and any other polymeric by-products, e.

The non-acid substituted polymer is typically not removed from the reaction mixture because such removal is difficult and would be commercially infeasible and the product mixture, stripped of any monounsaturated carboxylic reactant is employed for further reaction with the amine or alcohol as described hereinafter to make the dispersant.

Characterization of the average number of moles of monounsaturated carboxylic reactant which have reacted per mole gem polymer charged to the reaction whether it has undergone reaction or not is defined herein as functionality.

Said functionality is based upon i determination of the saponification number of the resulting product mixture using potassium hydroxide; and ii the number average molecular weight of the polymer charged, using techniques well known in the art. Functionality is defined solely with reference to the resulting product mixture.

Although the amount of said reacted polymer contained in the resulting product mixture can be subsequently modified, i. The terms “polymer substituted monocarboxylic acid material” and “polymer substituted dicarboxylic acid material” as used herein are intended to refer to the product mixture whether it has undergone such modification or not.


Accordingly, the functionality of the polymer substituted mono- and dicarboxylic acid material will be bsi at least about 0. Exemplary of such monounsaturated vis reactants are fumaric acid, itaconic acid, maleic acid, maleic anhydride, chloromaleic acid, chloromaleic anhydride, acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, crotonic acid, cinnamic acid, and lower alkyl e.

Preferred olefin polymers for reaction with the monounsaturated carboxylic reactants A are polymers comprising a major molar amount ge C 2 to C 10e. Adpac 2 to C 5 monoolefin. Such olefins include ethylene, propylene, butylene, isobutylene, pentene, octene-1, styrene, etc.

The polymers can be homopolymers such as polyisobutylene, as well as copolymers of two or more of such olefins such as copolymers of: Mixtures of polymers prepared by acpack of mixtures of isobutylene, butene-1 and butene-2, e. Other copolymers include those in which a minor molar amount of the copolymer monomers, e. In some cases, the olefin polymer may be completely saturated, for example an ethylene-propylene copolymer made by a Ziegler-Natta synthesis bls hydrogen as a adpac to control molecular weight.

The olefin polymers used in the formation bsi reactant A will generally have number average molecular weights within the range of about and about 5, preferably from about to 4, more preferably between about and about 3, Particularly useful olefin polymers have number average molecular weights within the range of bos and about with approximately one terminal double bond per polymer chain. The number average molecular weight for such polymers can be determined by several known techniques.

A convenient method for such determination is by gel permeation chromatography GPC which additionally provides molecular weight distribution information, see W. The olefin polymers will ggen have a molecular weight distribution the ratio of the weight average molecular weight to number average molecular weight, i.

The polymer can be reacted with the monounsaturated carboxylic reactant by a variety of methods. For example, the polymer can be first halogenated, chlorinated or brominated to about 1 to 8 wt. Processes of this bi type are taught in U. Alternatively, the polymer and the monounsaturated carboxylic reactant are mixed and heated while adding chlorine to the hot material.

Processes of this type are disclosed in U. Alternately, the polymer and the monounsaturated carboxylic reactant can be contacted at elevated temperature to cause a thermal “ene” reaction to take place. Thermal “ene” reactions have been heretofore described in U.

Such preferred polymers have been found to permit the preparation of reaction products, particularly when employing maleic anhydride as the unsaturated acid reactant, adpackk decreased sediment.

For example, the polymer can be heated, preferably with inert gas e.

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The precise temperature, pressure and time for such heat treatment can vary widely depending on such factors as the polymer number average molecular xdpack, the amount of the low molecular weight fraction to be removed, the particular monomers employed and other factors. In this process, the selected polymer and monounsaturated carboxylic reactant and halogen e.

Generally, the polymer and monounsaturated carboxylic reactant will be contacted in a unsaturated carboxylic reactant to polymer mole ratio usually from adppack 0: The mole bbis of halogen to monounsaturated carboxylic reactant charged will also vary and will generally range from about 0.

The reaction will be generally carried out, with stirring for a time of from about 1 to 20 hours, preferably from about 2 to 6 hours. By the use of halogen, about 65 to 95 wt. Upon carrying out a thermal reaction without the use of halogen or a catalyst, then usually only about 50 to 75 wt.

Adpackk helps increase the reactivity. For convenience, the aforesaid functionality ratios of mono- or dicarboxylic acid producing units to polyolefin, e.

The reaction is preferably conducted in the substantial absence of O 2 and water to avoid competing side reactionsand to this end can be conducted in an atmosphere of dry N 2 gas or other gas inert under the reaction conditions. The reactants can be charged separately or together as a mixture to the reaction zone, and the reaction can be carried adpacj continuously, semi-continuously or batchwise.

Although not generally necessary, the reaction can be carried out in the presence of a liquid diluent or solvent, e. The polymer substituted mono- or dicarboxylic acid material thus formed can be recovered from the liquid reaction mixture, e. If desired, a catalyst or promoter for reaction of the olefin polymer and monounsaturated carboxylic reactant whether the olefin polymer and monounsaturated carboxylic reactant are contacted in the presence or absence of ten e.

Such catalysts or promoters include alkoxides of Ti, Zr, V and A1, and nickel salts e.