(Azərbaycan) Aflatoksin nədir və ondan necə qorunmaq lazımdır? Sorry, this entry is only available in Azerbaijani. Share: Google+ · Facebook · Twitter · Linkedin. Aflatoxin contamination of maize (corn) in the south-eastern U.S. led to rejection rates Aflatoxin contamination reached ppb (5 times the ppb highest. Aflatoksin kontaminasyon düzeyleri de iklimsel, bölgesel özellikler veya gıda çeşidine Bunun sonucunda akut veya kronik toksisiteye neden olabilmektedir.
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Aflatoxins are poisonous carcinogens that are produced by certain molds Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus which grow in soil, decaying vegetation, hay, and grains. They are regularly found in improperly stored staple commodities such as cassavachili pepperscorncotton seedmilletpeanutsricesesame seedssorghumsunflower seedstree nutswheatand a variety of spices.
When contaminated food is processed, aflatoxins enter the general food supply where they have been found in both pet and human foods, as well as in feedstocks for agricultural animals. Animals fed contaminated food can pass aflatoxin transformation products into eggs, milk products, and meat. Children are particularly affected by aflatoxin exposure, which is associated with stunted growth,  delayed development,  liver damage, and liver cancer.
An association between childhood stunting and aflatoxin exposure  has been reported in some studies   but could not be detected in all. No animal species is immune. Aflatoxins are among the most carcinogenic substances known. Aflatoxins are most commonly ingested. However the most toxic type of aflatoxin, B 1can permeate through the skin. The term “aflatoxin” is derived from the name of one of the molds that produce it, Aspergillus flavus.
It was coined around after its discovery as the source of ” Turkey X disease “. Aflatoxin B 1 is considered the most toxic and is produced by both Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus.
Aflatoxin M 1 is present in the fermentation broth of Aspergillus parasiticusbut it and aflatoxin M 2 are also produced when an infected liver metabolizes aflatoxin B 1 and B 2. Aflatoxins are produced by both Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticuswhich are common forms of ‘weedy’ molds widespread in nature.
The presence of those molds does not always indicate that harmful levels of aflatoxin are present, but does indicate a significant risk. The molds can colonize and contaminate food before harvest or during storage, especially following prolonged exposure to a high-humidity environment, or to stressful conditions such as drought.
The native habitat of Aspergillus is in soil, decaying vegetation, hayand grains undergoing microbiological deterioration, but it invades all types of organic substrates whenever conditions are favorable for its growth. Aflatoxins have been isolated from all major cereal crops, and from sources as diverse as peanut butter and cannabis.
The staple commodities regularly contaminated with aflatoxins include cassava, chilies, corn, cotton seed, millet, peanuts, rice, sorghum, sunflower seeds, tree nuts, wheat, and a variety of spices intended for human or animal consumption. Aflatoxin transformation products are sometimes found in eggs, milk products, and meat when animals are fed contaminated grains.
A study conducted in Kenya and Mali found that the predominant practices for drying and storage of maize were inadequate in minimizing exposure to aflatoxins. Organic crops, which are not treated with fungicidesmay be more susceptible to contamination with aflatoxins.
No animal species is immune to the acute toxic effects of aflatoxins. Adult humans have a high tolerance for aflatoxin exposure and rarely succumb to acute aflatoxicosis,  but children are particularly affected, and their exposure can lead to stunted growth and delayed development, in addition to all the symptoms mentioned below. High-level aflatoxin exposure produces an acute hepatic necrosisresulting later in cirrhosis or carcinoma of the liver.
Chronic exposure increases the risk of developing liver and gallbladder  cancer, as aflatoxin metabolites may intercalate into DNA and alkylate the bases through epoxide moiety.
This is thought to cause mutations in the p53 gene, an important gene in preventing cell nevir progression when there are DNA mutations, or signaling apoptosis programmed cell death. These mutations seem to affect some base pair locations more than others, for example, the third base of codon of the p53 gene appears to be more susceptible to aflatoxin-mediated mutations than nearby bases.
Chronic, subclinical exposure does not lead to symptoms so dramatic as acute aflatoxicosis. The expression of aflatoxin-related diseases is influenced by factors such as species, age, nutrition, sex, and the possibility of concurrent exposure to other toxins.
The main target organ in mammals is the liver, so aflatoxicosis primarily is a hepatic disease. Conditions increasing the likelihood of aflatoxicosis in humans include limited availability of food, environmental conditions that favour mould growth on foodstuffs, and lack of regulatory systems for aflatoxin monitoring and control. A regular diet including apiaceous vegetablessuch as carrotsparsnipsceleryand parsley may reduce the carcinogenic effects of aflatoxin. Aflatoxin B neidr can cause immune suppression, and exposure to it is associated with an increased viral load in HIV positive individuals.
There is no specific antidote for aflatoxicosis. Symptomatic and supportive care tailored to the severity of the liver disease may include intravenous fluids with dextrose, active vitamin K, B aflafoksin, and a restricted, but high-quality protein diet with adequate carbohydrate content. There are two principal techniques that have been used most often to detect levels of aflatoxin in humans.
The first method is measuring the AFB 1 – guanine adduct in the urine of subjects. The presence of this breakdown product indicates exposure to aflatoxin B 1 during the past 24 hours. This technique measures only recent exposure, however. Due to the half-life of this metabolite, the level of AFB 1 -guanine measured may vary from day to day, based on diet, it is not ideal for assessing long-term exposure.
Another technique that has been used is a measurement of the AFB 1 – albumin adduct level in the blood serum. This approach provides a more integrated measure of exposure over several weeks or months. In dogs, aflatoxin has potential to lead to liver disease.
Low levels of aflatoxin exposure require continuous consumption for several weeks to months in order for signs of liver dysfunction to appear. Turkeys are extremely susceptible to aflatoxicosis. Recent studies have revealed that this is due to the efficient cytochrome P mediated metabolism of aflatoxin B 1 in the liver of turkeys and deficient glutathione-S-transferase mediated detoxification. InDiamond Pet Foods discovered aflatoxin in a product manufactured at their nedor in Gaston, South Carolina.
Testing of more than 2, finished aflatoksln samples conducted by laboratories confirmed that only two date codes of two adult dog formulas with the “Best By” dates of April 3, April 4, April 5, and April 11 had the potential to be toxic.
International sources of commercial peanut buttercooking oils e. In many of these contaminated food products, the aflatoxin exceeded the safe limits of the U. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Alpha toxin. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. Microbiology and Molecular Biology.
Critical Reviews in Toxicology. Aflatoxin and Food Safety. International Journal of Environmental Aflatoosin Research. International Journal of Epidemiology. Magical Mushrooms, Mischievous Molds: Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved March 10, Fungal Genetics and Biology.
Mycotoxins and animal foods. It sought to provide evidence of the cost-effectiveness of aflatoxin risk-reduction strategies along maize and groundnut value chains in Africa, and to understand what prevented adoption of these control strategies.
Kırmızı Pul Biberlerde Aflatoksin Ve Okratoksin A Varlığının İncelenmesi
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Molecular Biology and Genomics. Food and Chemical Toxicology. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. The Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. Chemical Research in Toxicology.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Scientific Background, Control, and Implications. Journal of Agricultural and Aflatokain Chemistry. Retrieved 17 October Toxins enterotoxin neurotoxin hemotoxin cardiotoxin phototoxin. Anthrax toxin Listeriolysin O.
Streptolysin Leukocidin Panton-Valentine leukocidin. Cord factor Diphtheria nedkr. Lipopolysaccharide Lipid A Bacillus thuringiensis delta endotoxin. Clumping factor A Fibronectin binding protein A. Conotoxin Eledoisin Onchidal Saxitoxin Tetrodotoxin. Botulism Campylobacter jejuni Clostridium perfringens Escherichia coli O H4 Escherichia coli O Devon colic Swill milk scandal Bradford sweets arlatoksin English beer poisoning Morinaga Milk arsenic poisoning incident Minamata disease Iraq poison grain disaster Toxic oil syndrome Jack in the Box E.
Look up aflatoxin in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Exotoxin Gram positive Bacilli Clostridium: